Hegel e la disputa tra Antichi e Moderni


  • Danilo Manca


In the following article I shall discuss two controversial Hegel’s sentences. The first is that according to which the sequence of the systems of philosophy in history is the same as the sequence of thought-determinations in the logical deduction of Idea. The second is that according to which the latest philosophy of the history (chronologically speaking) is the most developed, richest and concrete. My thesis is that these sentences could be understood only if we consider some logical issues. Therefore the first step of my paper will be to give an account of Hegel’s logic of contingency [Zufälligkeit], by showing that Hegel recognizes that the contingency is the form of spirit’s self-actualizing in the history, but, at the same time, he thinks that if the determined manifestation of Idea occurs contingently, it has no contingency this same fact. As second step, I will consider the notion of development [Entwicklung], by arguing that it should not be connected with the notion of linear progress, but rather with the idea of a gradual increase of complexity. After that, I will show how the key question those sentences raise has to do with the position Hegel takes regarding the German version of famous quarrel between Ancients and Moderns. Although he claims that the latest philosophy appeared in history is the most developed, richest and concrete, he attributes the first place to an ancient philosopher like Aristotle; by contrast he considers a modern philosopher like Spinoza as only the beginning in the philosophy. Are these claims compatible with Hegel’s controversial sentences?